Sudan is an African country located in the northeastern part of the continent. Sudan is the third largest country in Africa, after Algeria and Congo. The name Sudan is derived from the Arabic word for “black”, referring to the colour of the people of the region.
Sudan is a landlocked country with an area of 2,505,810 square kilometres (967,499 sq mi). It is bordered by Egypt to the north, Libya to the northwest, Chad to the west, Central African Republic to the southwest, South Sudan to the south, Ethiopia to the southeast, Eritrea to the east and Red Sea to northeast. With 37 million inhabitants, it is Africa’s tenth most populous nation. The majority of its inhabitants are Arabs or Arabs-speaking people of Sudanese nationality.
Since independence in 1956, Sudan has been ruled by a series of military dictatorships. The country has suffered from an ethnic civil war, a separatist war and Islamic insurgencies. Sudan’s current borders were established in 1821 when the Ottoman Empire was divided by the British as part of the Anglo-Egyptian condominium agreement. Sudan was adopted as the official name for the new country at independence in 1956. It is called “al-Jumhūriyyah al-ʿArabiyyah as-Sūdāniyyah” (الجمهورية العربية السودانية) in Arabic.
The largest city is Khartoum, located at the confluence of the White Nile and the Blue Nile. Sudan’s capital was moved to Khartoum in 1884 when the British took control of the country. Sudan’s climate is semi-arid in the north and tropical in the south. The country’s economy relies heavily on agriculture and oil exports.
Sudan has a long history, with evidence of human habitation dating back to 9000 BC. It is one of the oldest countries in Africa. Sudan’s pyramids are among the largest and best preserved in the world. The Kingdom of Kush, which flourished between about 1000 BC and 350 AD, was centered in modern Sudan. Christianity began to spread in Sudan in the 6th century. Islam arrived in the 7th century, and Sudan became a Muslim state.
Arabic is Sudan’s official language, but many Sudanese speak African languages as well. The three largest African language groups in Sudan are the Nubian languages (spoken by about 1 million people), the Niger-Congo languages (spoken by about 8 million people) and the Nilo-Saharan languages (spoken by about 6 million people).
Sudan is a member of the United Nations, the African Union, the Arab League and the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation. It has close ties to Saudi Arabia, Egypt and other Arab countries. Sudan is also a signatory to the Non-Proliferation Treaty and the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty.
Sudan’s economy is based on agriculture, oil and minerals. The country’s oil reserves are estimated to be about 5 billion barrels, making Sudan the third-largest holder of African oil reserves after Nigeria and Angola. Sudan’s agricultural sector employs about 70% of the workforce and contributes to about 40% of the GDP. The country is one of the world’s leading producers of sorghum and millet. Other crops grown in Sudan include wheat, rice, cotton, peanuts, sesame seeds, gum arabic and sugarcane.
The civil war in Sudan (1983-2005) resulted in the deaths of an estimated 2 million people and the displacement of 4 million others. The war also destroyed Sudan’s infrastructure and economy. Since the signing of a peace agreement in 2005, Sudan has been working to rebuild its economy.
The country’s oil reserves have helped to finance the reconstruction effort. In 2010, Sudan completed a $3 billion deal with the China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC) to develop its oil sector. Sudan is also working to attract investment in other sectors of the economy, such as agriculture, mining and manufacturing.
Sudan faces many challenges, including high levels of poverty, corruption and violence. The country is also struggling to cope with the influx of refugees from South Sudan. Despite these challenges, Sudan has made progress in recent years in terms of economic development and poverty reduction.
The country’s GDP per capita has doubled since 2000. And the poverty rate has declined from 61% in 2000 to 53% in 2014.
Possible topics for a research paper on Sudan
Research papers on Sudan can focus on any aspect of the country’s history, culture, economy or politics. Possible topics for a research paper on Sudan include:
- The history of Sudan
- The civil war in Sudan
- The oil industry in Sudan
- The agricultural sector in Sudan
- The refugees from South Sudan
- Economic development in Sudan
- Poverty reduction in Sudan
- Corruption in Sudan
- Violence in Sudan
- The pyramids of Sudan
- The kingdom of Kush
- Christianity in Sudan
- Islam in Sudan
- Arabic culture in Sudan
- African cultures in Sudan
- The non-proliferation treaty
- The comprehensive nuclear-test-ban treaty.
- Sudan’s relations with Saudi Arabia, Egypt and other Arab countries.
- Sudan’s membership in the United Nations, the African Union, the Arab League and the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation.
- The CNPC oil deal
- Sudan’s efforts to attract investment in agriculture, mining and manufacturing.
- The challenges facing Sudan, such as high levels of poverty, corruption and violence.
- The progress made by Sudan in recent years in terms of economic development and poverty reduction.
The social issues in Sudan are:
- The marginalization of women
- Female genital mutilation (FGM)
- Child marriage
- Forced marriage
- Human trafficking
- Domestic violence
- Sexual violence
- Honour killings.
The economic issues in Sudan are:
- high levels of poverty
The political issues in Sudan are:
- the civil war (1983-2005)
- the conflict in Darfur (2003-present)
- the question of South Sudan’s independence (2011)
- human rights abuses.